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Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb, commonly known as Aurangzeb and by his imperial title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Aurangzeb was a notable expansionist and was among the wealthiest of the Mughal rulers with an annual yearly tribute of £38,624,680. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 3.2 million square kilometres and he ruled over a population estimated as being in the range of 100-150 million subjects. He was a pious Muslim, and his policies partly abandoned the religious toleration of his predecessors, which remains a very controversial aspect of his reign. He was a strong and effective ruler, but with his death the great period of the Mughal dynasty came to an end, and central control of the sub-continent declined rapidly.